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Thursday, December 4, 2008

Fracture of Skull Cap

Any blow or fall on the head can cause damage, noticeable immediately or later. An injury of the cranium is only visible, if there is an open wound or an apparent deformation (dent) at the same site.

 

Symptoms and Signs

-         wound on the scalp

-         bone splinters may be visible

-         possible brain protrusion

-         possible symptoms of brain damage (disturbance of consciousness, unconsciousness)

 

Skull Base

A fracture of the skull base is an injury typical of road accidents due to the impact caused by head on collisions with the windshield, and of skiing and sledding accidents.

 

Apart from the base of the skull, blood vessel and nerves entering and exiting at the skull base can, likewise, be injured and cause bleeding and nerve failure. Brain injuries are also possible.

 

Symptoms and Signs

Suspect the fractured skull base, if blood, even a few drops only, is coming from inside the ear; bleeding from the nose or the eye socket (haematoma around the eye) might also be evidence of a fractured skull. Quite often signs of brain damage (unconsciousness) are apparent.

 

Danger

Danger of suffocation (when the unconscious casualty is lying on his back), brain pressure because of brain swelling or brain bleeding (unconsciousness, spasms, respiratory and circulatory failure), danger of infection in open skull injuries.

 

First Aid

-         If necessary, take immediately life-saving action

-         Cover the wound, do not apply any pressure to the wound

-         Raise the casualty’s head and thorax, if he is conscious.

-         If he is unconscious, turn him to his uninjured side.

-         Exception: if the skull is dented or broken, the casualty should lie on the uninjured side.

 

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