Sunday, November 23, 2008

Bone Fractures

A fracture is a break of a bone caused by direct or indirect violence. The tensile strength and bending ability of the bone are exceeded and bone breaks.

There are two main types of fractures:

  • Fracture without any visible wound (closed fracture),
  • Fracture with a visible wound at the site of the broken bone (open fracture).

Symptom and signs

  • Pain, swelling, pain-relieving stance
  • Movement is difficult of impossible
  • Deformity (abnormal shape and outline of the bone)
  • Wounds


Shock owing to blood loss and pain. A wound at the side of the fracture carries the risk of infection. Inexpert aid can turn a closed fracture into an open fracture. Injuries of nerves, blood vessels and internal organs are also possible.

First Aid

  • Do not move the affected arm.
  • In case of an open fracture immediately apply a sterile dressing.
  • Loosen tight clothing, remove wrist-watches and rings.
  • Immobilize the broken arm with a sling formed of an open triangular bandage.
  • Support with a ‘broad-fold-bandage’ or a second open triangular bandage.
  • Treat for shock.
  • Emergency call.

For Broken Leg

  • Do not move the injured leg.
  • Loosen tight clothing, shoelaces, etc., but do not take the shoes off.
  • In case of an open fracture dressing.
  • Immobilize the limb by supporting it with suitable padding between the legs.
  • Treat for shock
  • Emergency call.

Attempt to place bizarrely displaced or twisted limbs into the approximately correct position by applying gentle fraction, in order to prevent painful muscle cramps and circulatory disturbances, but stop if you feel resistance. If the position of the affected limb cannot be changed without resistance, refrain from doing so!.

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